SCD occurs throughout sub-Saharan Africa and in small pockets in the: Middle East, Indian subcontinent and Mediterranian and Caribbean regions [8,9].
Worldwide, approximately 300,000 to 400,000 children are born every year with SCD and up to 90% of these births occur in low-or middleincome countries [5,8].
Because many factors in sicklecell- induced ischemic injury are regulated by nitrous oxide (NO), the role of NO has been explored in patients with SCA.
While pilot studies treating individuals with NO initially showed beneficial effects, larger studies did not show similar benefits .
Secretion-associated and RAS-related protein (SAR) has recently been shown to play a pivotal role in HGB induction and erythroid maturation by causing cell apoptosis and G1/S-phase arrest .