Although the Japanese consider themselves to be a homogeneous people, minorities do exist, and they often suffer discrimination.The largest indigenous minority are the two to four million hisabetsu buraku ("discriminated communities"), descendants of the outcast communities of feudal Japan.
Japan's fertility problem hit a new low last year: 2016 was the first year since 1899 that fewer than one million babies were born in the country.
New data suggests the trend isn't poised to let up anytime soon.
The Japanese courts have had conviction rates that exceeded 99% in the past but that number has been curtailed in recent history due to changes in Japanese law.
In common law countries which practice trial by jury, this is seen as an indication that defendants are not receiving a fair trial.
However, reports by Japanese bar associations, human rights groups, and some prisoners indicated such physical abuse, which they often do not report, takes place in regard to the treatment of illegal immigrants.