Another hypothesis was being floated to explain why the carbon dating of the shroud might be wrong. Sue Benford and Joe Marino suggested that the sample used in the carbon dating was from a corner of the cloth that had been mended using a technique known as invisible reweaving – an actual technique practiced by medieval tapestry restorers and practiced today by tailors to repair tears in expensive clothing.
The first documented reference of the shroud dates to 1357, when the linen was displayed in a church in Lirey, France.
Believers contend that the shroud is the "cloth with an image on it," reported by the early Christian historian Eusebius to have been given to the Christian King Abgar V of Edessa in 30 A. According to this account, the cloth, known as the Mandylion of Edessa, was taken to Constantinople in 944. First Showing This image, incised on copper, dating back to 1578, represents a public showing of the Holy Shroud in Turin in 1578.
The reactions also could have led to "a wrong radiocarbon dating," which would explain the results of the 1989 experiments, Carpinteri said i Giulio Fanti, a professor of mechanical engineering at Padua University, published a book last year "Il Mistero della Sindone," translated as "The Mystery of the Shroud," (Rizzoli, 2013), arguing that his own analysis proves the shroud dates to Jesus' lifetime.
In an email, Fanti said he is not sure if a neutron emission is the only possible source responsible for creating the body image.
However, some recent studies, carried out by the first author and his Team at the Laboratory of Fracture Mechanics of the Politecnico di Torino, found that it is possible to generate neutron emissions from very brittle rock specimens in compression through piezonuclear fission reactions.