Developmental testing can provide substantial information about failure modes of individual components, including the full prototype.
A key theme of this chapter is that simulation is not a substitute for operational testing.
The chapter defines a comprehensive model validation of a constructive simulation for use in operational testing and evaluation, discusses the use of constructive simulation to assist in operational test design and then to assist in operational test evaluation, and lastly discusses needed improvements to the current uses of modeling and simulation.
Since there are both effective and ineffective applications of modeling and simulation to (developmental and) operational testing, the key issues are how to identify the models and simulations that can be safely used to augment operational test experience; how to conduct model validation; and how the augmentation should be carried out.
Given the breadth of possible applications, only a few of these issues can be addressed here.
Therefore, failure to conduct some operational testing can result in erroneous effectiveness assessments or in missed failure modes and (possibly) optimistic estimates of operational system effectiveness or suitability.